ITM Master 1. Sem.
Tu 11:45-15:30 S5 / S16
Hand-in before July 10th 2019
Paper app. 12 pages
Each participant define a research question based on the topics of overtourism, emerging tourism source markets or SDGs – or another tourism-related topic and develop a multi-methods research design including
- Research question
- Discussion of methods used (at least two): Why use these methods and not other methods, which hypothesis can be answered based on the research with which method(s)
- Approximation of time, funding and staff needed
work programme for project with explanations
- Possible stakeholders interested in research results / possibly contributing to funding
“Once upon a time, I dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither and thither, to all intents and purposes a butterfly.
I was conscious only of my happiness as a butterfly, unaware that I was myself. Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again.
Now I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly, dreaming I am a man.”
The Battle of Tourism Methods I:
The product approach involves the study of various tourism products and how they are produced, marketed, and consumed. For example, one might study an airline seat—how it is created, the people who are engaged in buying and selling it, how it is financed, how it is advertised, and so on. Repeating this procedure for rental cars, hotel rooms, meals, and other tourist services gives a full picture of the field.
The historical approach is not widely used. It involves an analysis of tourism activities and institutions from an evolutionary angle. It searches for the cause of innovations, their growth or decline, and shifts in interest. Modern tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, this approach has its usefulness only for the last two centuries.
The managerial approach is firm-oriented (microeconomic), focusing on the management activities necessary to operate a tourist enterprise, such as planning, research, pricing, advertising, control, and the like. It is a popular approach, using insights gleaned from other approaches and disciplines. Products change, institutions change, and society changes; this means that managerial objectives and procedures must be geared to change to meet shifts in the tourism environment.
Because of its importance to both domestic and world economies, tourism has been examined closely by economists, who focus on supply, demand, balance of payments, foreign exchange, employment, expenditures, development, multipliers, and other economic factors. This approach is useful in providing a framework for analyzing tourism and its contributions to a country’s economy and economic development. The disadvantage of the economic approach is that whereas tourism is an important economic phenomenon, it has noneconomic impacts as well. The economic approach does not usually pay adequate attention to the environmental, cultural, psychological, sociological, and anthropological approaches.
Tourism tends to be a social activity. Consequently, it has attracted the attention of sociologists, who have studied the tourism behavior of individuals and groups of people and the impact of tourism on society. This approach examines social classes, habits, and customs of both hosts and guests. The sociology of leisure is a relatively undeveloped field, but it shows promise of progressing rapidly and becoming more widely used. As tourism continues to make a massive impact on society, it needs to be studied more and more from a social point of view.
Geography is a wide-ranging discipline, so it is natural that geographers should be interested in tourism and its spatial aspects. The geographer specializes in the study of location, environment, climate, landscape, and economic aspects.
The geographer’s approach to tourism sheds light on the location of tourist areas, the movements of people created by tourism locales, the changes that tourism brings to the landscape in the form of tourism facilities, dispersion of tourism development, physical planning, and economic, social, and cultural problems. Because tourism touches geography at so many points, geographers have investigated the area thoroughly. The geographers’ approach encompasses land use, economic aspects, demographic impacts, and cultural problems. Recreational geography is a common course title used by geographers studying this specialty.
Tourism embraces virtually all aspects of our society. We have cultural and heritage tourism, which calls for an anthropological approach. Because people behave in different ways and travel for different reasons, it is necessary to use a psychological approach to determine the best way to promote and market tourism products. Because tourists cross borders and require passports and visas from government offices, and because most countries have government-operated tourism development departments, we find that political institutions are involved and are calling for a political science approach. Any industry that becomes an economic giant affecting the lives of many people attracts the attention of legislative bodies which create the laws, regulations, and legal environment in which the tourist industry must operate; so we also have a legal approach. The great importance of transportation suggests passenger transportation as another approach. The fact simply is that tourism is so vast, so complex, and so multifaceted that it is necessary to have a number of approaches to studying the field, each geared to a somewhat different task or objective.
The Battle of Tourism Methods II:
Introduction Prof. Arlt:
Former owner of specialized tour operator companies
1997-2001 lecturer (Intercultural Management, Tourism) in Europe and East Asia
Fellow of Royal Geographical Society (London) FRGS
Research Fellow of Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (Tokyo)
Board member and member HRD committee PATA Pacific Asia Travel Association(Bangkok)
Vice President Western Europe ITSA International Tourism Studies Association (Beijing/Greenwich)
Fellow of International Association of China Tourism Studies (Guangzhou)
Member of UNWTO Expert Panel (Madrid)
Member of Expert Committee World Tourism Cities Federation (Beijing)
Member of Friends of Europe Think Tank (Brussels)
Director of China Outbound Tourism Research Institute (COTRI)
Researcher University of Brighton (UK)
- Experiences in Tourism
- Planned Branch / Job / PhD after MA
- Dream job
Where have we been already?
Global Tourism Development
WORLD POPULATION GROWTH:
Global GDP over last 2000 years: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEXU-hbymZA
Global development of tourism and work in tourism
World touristiness map: World map color-coded by level of touristiness. Yellow indicates high touristiness, red medium touristiness, and blue low touristiness. Areas having no Panoramio photos at all are grey. The analysis takes into account how many photos and by how many authors there are in a given area.
INTRODUCTION SCIENTIFIC METHODS
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS