Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt
International Tourism Management


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ITM Bachelor 3. Sem.
10344 Emerging Tourism Source Markets I




Global Tourism Development













Source: The Economist 2018, Sept 13 A manifesto for renewing liberalism







Global development of tourism and work in tourism
 pre-modern -> modern   -> post-modern
 Discovery -> Acquisition -> Invention












(up to 18th c.)

(19-20th c.)

(21st c.)





Who is travelling?


very rich; adventurers, traders

growing numbers,

rich people plus
- Europe / North America:
middle classes (19th c.)
working classes (20th c.)
- Asia / South America:
middle classes (21th c.)

Almost everybody (app. 4 out 7 billion)

People are host and guest at different times


Discovery, Distinction

Acquisition, Relaxation

Invention, Experience

Impact on destination

physically minimal
culturally medium

new infrastructure, touristification
impact also on source region

glocalisation of destinations

invention of artificial places

Development of tourism Industry

almost not existing

strong growth



long time
(months, years)

medium length (weeks, months)

short (days) or long (years)

Relation to daily life

Travel part of life

Clear split between working time and leisure time/tourism

Travel part of life

Consequences for jobs in tourism

Almost no specific jobs in travel and tourism

Development of specific jobs, mostly organisation of travel and sightseeing

Diversification and segmentation of markets. Development of complex labour market and job structure

Traveller bring their own HRM infrastructure

Minimum specialisation

Travel and Tourism as working field not existing (no guilds, etc.)

Already bad image (Wirtshaus connected to crime and vice)

Specific infrastructure and purpose-build structures developed

Traveller grow in numbers, but clear differentiation between top and bottom market, no middle market before app. 1970s

Beginning internationalisation of workforce


Almost everybody plays both roles of host and guest at different times Tourism globally important economic factor

High specialisation of products and diversification of jobs

Strong internationalisation of workforce





World touristiness map: World map color-coded by level of touristiness, based on analysis of photos on Panoramio. Yellow indicates high touristiness, red medium touristiness, and blue low touristiness. Areas having no Panoramio photos at all are grey. The analysis takes into account how many photos and by how many authors there are in a given area.











  Contact: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Georg Arlt FRGS FRAS
Bachelor and Master Program International Tourism Management,  Tel. 0481 8555-513